sometimes you want to use output of a command as input for another command or you want to give content of a file as input of a command. in these situations, you need to know how to redirect input and output. today we will show you how to use these redirectors.
1- redirector categories
there is seven category of most important redirectos as shown below:
Creates a new file containing standard output. If the specified file exists, it’s overwritten. No file descriptor necessary.
Appends standard output to the existing file. If the specified file doesn’t exist, it’s created. No file descriptor necessary.
Creates a new file containing standard error. If the specified file exists, it’s overwritten. File descriptor necessary.
Appends standard error to the existing file. If the specified file doesn’t exist, it’s created. File descriptor necessary.
Creates a new file containing both standard output and standard error. If the specified file exists, it’s overwritten. No file descriptors necessary.
Sends the contents of the specified file to be used as standard input. No file descriptor necessary.
Accepts text on the following lines as standard input. No file descriptor necessary.
now we want to teach you how to use these redictors by examples.
example of >:
# ls -la > out.txt
in this example, we redirect output of “ls -la” commnad to a file named “out.txt”. so instead of showing output in terminal, it will save in “out.txt” file.
example of >>:
# ls -la >> out.txt
the difference between this and previous example is that, here the output of “ls -la” command will be appended to “out.txt” file, but in previous example, existing content of “out.txt” file will be cleared completely.
example of 2>:
imagine you have a program named “whine” that after running, will produce a lot error on terminal and you want to save it for further investigation. so in this case, we need to issue the following command:
# whine 2> err.txt
example of 2>>:
comparing to previous example, the difference is that, output error of “whine” program will be appended to “err.txt” file:
# whine 2>> err.txt
example of &>:
consider “whine” program. now we want to save any output of this program into a file. no matter if i’s standard or error:
# whine &> err.txt
example of <:
sometimes you create a backup of your mysql database and want to restore it again. simple and easy way is to use input redirector as show below:
# mysql -u root -p test < backup.sql
when we run this command, it will prompt for password and then content of “backup.sql” file will be inserted in “test” database.
example of <<:
instead of file content, we want to use keyboard to give input. this is very usefull for sending email with mail commnad:
mail -s "test" [email protected] << EOT
this command tells us to accept input form keyboard until “EOT” has been typed.